The color gold represents the value of children and the tenacity of childhood cancer heroes. Unlike other awareness ribbons that represent a single disease, the children cancer ribbon represents hundreds of diseases. The color gold also reflects the hope that no child should face cancer, and every child who does should have access to the best care possible.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death among children under 15 years old. Although pediatric cancer mortality rates have declined over the past few decades, it remains too high. Each year around 11,000 children are diagnosed with cancer in the United States and more than 3,000 will die from it. Cancer is the number one health problem for children under 15. The main types of cancer in children are leukemia, lymphoma, brain tumors, and osteosarcoma (bone tumor).
In 1969, after learning that patients with Hodgkin's disease had better outcomes if they got involved in clinical trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) established a division called the Children's Cancer Group (CCG). The CCG develops new treatments and tests them in children with cancer who would otherwise not be eligible for such studies. Since its founding, the group has been a leader in pediatric oncology research and treatment development.
A light purple or lavender ribbon is commonly used to represent all malignancies collectively. Instead, multiple different ribbons are sometimes joined to represent all malignancies. This is called a "mosaic" pattern.
Cancer cells develop when DNA in living organisms mutates into forms that cause tumors to grow beyond their normal boundaries. Cancer cells can be found everywhere you look on Earth - animals, plants, even bacteria contain them. Although scientists still do not fully understand how this mutation occurs, there are many factors that have been linked with an increased risk of cancer. These include age, ethnicity, family history, exposure to toxins, and certain diseases such as AIDS and HIV infection.
Cancers are classified by the type of cell that is producing them. For example, cancers that start in bone marrow cells are called blood cancers. Cancers that start in skin cells are called skin cancers. There are several different types of cancer, but for simplicity's sake we will focus on eight common ones: lung, breast, prostate, colon, ovarian, bladder, and rectal (the last two being gastrointestinal cancers). These account for nearly 70 percent of all cases of cancer diagnosed in the United States.
According to club members, survivors of these cancers combined the two colors into a "awareness heart ribbon" in 2007 to represent all kinds of lymphoma. However, in 2009, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society adopted the color red to symbolize all blood malignancies.
The color red was originally used by Dr. William Coley to treat cancer patients in 1867. He mixed bacteria with blood from cancer patients and injected it into them as a treatment. This form of immunotherapy is still used today in some countries, such as Japan.
Cancer cells grow quickly, which makes them vulnerable to attacks by our immune system. Cancer vaccines work by making your body recognize certain proteins on cancer cells that tell its white blood cells to attack them. In addition, some cancer vaccines can also trigger an immune response that leads to the death of cancer cells.
Cancer immunotherapies are different from traditional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy which kill both healthy and cancerous cells. They aim to stimulate the body's own immune system to fight cancer.
There are several types of cancer immunotherapies including: monoclonal antibodies, adoptive cell therapies, viral-based therapies, and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs).
Monoclonal antibodies target single molecules called antigens found on the surface of cancer cells.
Childhood Cancer Awareness Month is celebrated in September to honor the children and families afflicted by childhood malignancies and to underscore the need of funding research into these dreadful diseases. The annual event was initiated by Congress in 1992.
Children's cancers are different from adult cancers in many ways. They often occur as a single lesion that develops within a child's body, not as multiple lesions as in adults. Also, children usually have much better survival rates than adults because most children's cancers are found early, when it is easier to treat them. Finally, children's cancers are driven by genetic changes that lead to disease; therefore, prevention focuses on identifying at-risk individuals and implementing treatments before cancer occurs.
The four main types of childhood cancer are leukemia, lymphoma, brain tumors and others. Leukemia is the term given to cancers of the blood cells or bone marrow. It can be acute (short, severe illness with no recovery reported) or chronic (longer lasting version of an acute leukemia). The two main types of leukemia are lymphatic leukemia and myeloid leukemia. Lymphatic leukemia involves the abnormal growth of cells that belong to the lymphatic system, which is made up of small vessels and organs such as the thymus, spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes.