Systole is proportional to heart rate, while ejection time is proportional to heart rate. Diastole is more complexly related to heart rate and lasts longer at low heart rates. Ejection fraction is also a function of heart rate.
At rest, the average human heart beats about 500 times per day. During a full-court press, it can beat over 1000 times in just one hour. The average length of each heartbeat is about 0.4 seconds. This makes the total length of the systolic phase about 23.6 minutes and the diastolic phase about 47.2 minutes. However, since the heart rests for several minutes between beats, its overall duration is about 50 minutes.
Since blood flow through the heart is continuous rather than periodic, the terms "systole" and "diastole" are used to describe the periods when blood enters and leaves the heart, respectively. At rest, most of the blood that fills the ventricles does so during the diastolic phase; at peak exercise, however, most blood enters the heart in the form of arterial pulses which enter during systole.
This difference is important because it means that the amount of blood pumped with each contraction (stroke volume) varies depending on how much pressure is applied to the heart (afterload).
Systole is the period of time when the left and right ventricles contract and discharge blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery, respectively. The aortic and pulmonic valves open during systole to allow ejection into the aorta and pulmonary arteries. Ejection occurs because blood pressure is greater in the chambers of the heart than outside of the heart. Thus, the walls of the heart have to stretch to allow the blood to flow out.
Diastole is the period between heartbeats when the ventricles are relaxed. The atria relax to allow blood into the ventricles from the lungs and the brain and other tissues receive oxygenated blood. The ventricles then contract to pump this blood out to the body. Diastole also includes the time before the next contraction (systole) begins.
The cycle of the heart starts with diastole. During diastole, the muscles of the heart relax so that blood can fill the ventricles; this is where the word "diastolic" comes from. At the end of diastole, the muscles of the heart tighten up again, causing the ventricles to squeeze during systole. This is how blood is pumped out of the heart and into the aorta and other vessels supplying the body.
Heart failure is the final stage of many different heart problems.
Systole is the time of heart ventricular contraction that occurs between the first and second heart sounds of the cardiac cycle (the sequence of events in a single heart beat). Blood is ejected into the aorta and pulmonary trunk during systole. Diastole is the time of heart ventricular relaxation after blood is ejected into the aorta and pulmonary trunk. The period from initiation of systole to completion of diastole is called one heartbeat.
The ejection fraction is the percentage of blood pumped out of the heart with each heartbeat. Healthy humans have an average ejection fraction of 60-65%. When this number falls below 55%, it can be an indication of heart disease.
Diagram showing the phases of the cardiac cycle: systole and diastole. During systole, the walls of the left ventricle contract and move blood into the aorta and pulmonary trunk. During diastole, the walls of the left ventricle relax and allow blood to return to the heart from the aorta and pulmonary trunk.
The cardiac cycle consists of three parts: diastole, systole, and diastasis. During diastole, the ventricles are relaxed so that blood can flow back into them.
The cardiac cycle is divided into two phases: diastole and systole. They happen while the heart beats, moving blood through a network of blood arteries that transports blood to all parts of the body. Systole is the contraction of the heart to pump blood out, while diastole is the relaxation of the heart following contraction. The terms are used interchangeably in medicine but with different definitions.
Systole begins with the initiation of electrical stimulation from the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker) causing the muscle cells of the atria to contract. Blood enters the atria because of this contraction and moves toward the ventricles. As the atria begin to relax after contraction, the muscle cells of the ventricles also contract, forcing the blood out through the heart valves. This process continues until all three chambers of the heart have contracted and relaxed multiple times, resulting in a steady stream of blood flowing out of the heart through its vascular system.
Diastole begins when the atria begin to relax after contraction. The atria slowly fill with blood, and the pressure inside the atria increases. This increase in pressure causes certain sections of the atria to stretch tight, like a balloon being pumped up. These sections are called "diastolic segments." When the atria are completely filled with blood, the diastolic segment muscles suddenly snap back, releasing any excess pressure inside the atria.
It is divided into two parts: diastole, when the heart muscle relaxes and refills with blood, and systole, when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood. The cardiac cycle
|Cardiac cycle or cardiac output|
|Duration||0.6–1 second (Humans)|
Which cardiac chambers are often referred to by the words systole and diastole? The left ventricle is the chamber of choice for these terms.
Systole is the period of contraction of the left ventricle. It begins with the onset of electrical stimulation of the muscle tissue and is complete when the muscle cells are relaxed again, allowing blood flow out of the heart. Diastole is the period between heartbeats during which the ventricles relax so that blood can be drawn into them from the body via the aorta and pulmonary artery. Diastole also includes the time during which the pacemaker in the sinoatrial node triggers the atrioventricular node which then transmits the impulse to the ventricles.
The term "systole" comes from the Greek word meaning "to squeeze". The term "diastole" comes from the Greek word meaning "to stretch". Systole and diastole occur simultaneously during each heartbeat but they are important phases of the cardiac cycle because it is during these times that pressure is built up within the ventricles to push blood out into the aorta and pulmonary artery when the heart contracts.