Bacteria linked with periodontal disorders are mostly gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, such as A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and P. gingivalis. Other organisms that have been implicated in periodontal disease include Streptococcus spp. , Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Treponema denticola.
The presence of these bacteria in high concentrations in dental plaque is thought to be a major factor in the development of periodontal disease. As people age, their immune systems tend to become less effective in fighting off bacterial infections, making them more susceptible to developing periodontal disease. Additionally, if you have periodontal disease, your body is also affected since bacteria from your mouth can spread to other parts of your body where it can cause serious health problems as well.
Bacterial species associated with periodontal disease have evolved ways to survive in spite healthy human hosts. For example, P. gingivalis has been shown to invade and destroy tissue cells that line the pockets between your teeth. The bacteria use these cell fragments to create new clones that will continue to grow and accumulate until they eventually detach from the original source and enter the bloodstream or lymph system. From there, they may colonize other tissues in the body where they can cause additional damage.
The two most common kinds of bacteria linked with periodontal disease are anaerobic, which means they can thrive in the absence of oxygen. According to the Journal of Immunology Research, they are Treponema denticola and Porphyromonas gingivalis, and both can grow and produce gum inflammation. Other anaerobic bacteria include Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcus micros.
In addition to anaerobic bacteria, there are also aerobic bacteria in the mouth. These are good bacteria that help us smell, taste, and maintain a healthy immune system. Some examples include Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguis, S. oralis, and S. pneumoniae.
When we don't wash our hands after going to the bathroom or before eating, we allow these bacteria to be transmitted from person to person. This is why it's important to regularly practice good oral hygiene - this will reduce the amount of bacterial growth in your mouth and help prevent tooth decay and gum disease.
Early detection of chronic periodontitis is critical to avoiding more difficult and severe stages of the disease. Mechanical removal and/or reduction of subgingival bacterial biofilms and calculus can successfully treat the majority of instances of mild to moderate chronic periodontitis. These bacteria colonize the tooth surface and form layers of slime that trap food particles and other substances. As bacteria multiply they produce enzymes that destroy tissue cells that support the teeth. The immune system tries to fight off these bacteria but often fails because there are too many organisms and their products present at one time.
Treatment for chronic periodontitis involves a combination of mechanical procedures (scaling and root planing) used to remove dental plaque and tartar (calculus) along with oral antibiotics. Antibiotics kill the bacteria that cause periodontitis so that they do not have time to multiply and release more toxins. There are several different classes of antibiotics that can be used including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and metronidazole. It is important to take all of your medications as prescribed by your doctor. If you miss a dose or stop taking your medication altogether, you put yourself at risk for further health problems. With regular visits to your dentist, treatment of chronic periodontitis can help prevent further damage to your teeth and provide you with a healthy mouth environment.
Periodontics is essentially a discipline of dentistry that deals with the treatment of the oral structures that surround and support the teeth. The jawbone, gums, and surrounding oral tissue can all be affected by the chronic plaque accumulation that causes gingivitis and gum disease. If not treated, this disease can lead to tooth loss due to bone destruction around the teeth.
The goal of periodontal therapy is to prevent further damage to the gums and bones that support the teeth by removing bacterial deposits and controlling inflammation. This is done by performing preventive measures and treating active infections, as well as promoting healing for existing lesions.
During a periodontal examination, your dentist will measure the level of attachment between the teeth and gums using instruments called probes. Based on these measurements, the doctor will determine which areas need special attention and perform additional tests if necessary. These may include taking biopsies of damaged tissue or performing scans to view internal body parts not readily accessible to the eye.
Once the cause of the disease has been identified, it can be treated successfully. Treatment may include one or more of the following: scaling and root planning (SRP), surgery, antimicrobials, or devices such as implants or prosthetics.
Gingival abscess—a purulent infection of the soft gum tissue around the marginal gingiva or the interdental papilla. Periodontal abscess: a localized, purulent infection of the gum tissue that extends apically and next to a periodontal pocket. The term "periodontal abscess" is generally used only to describe an acute infection with swelling of the gingiva that occurs in association with tooth decay or injury to the tissues surrounding the teeth.
The mouth is divided into four areas: anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial. An abscess usually develops as a result of bacterial growth in an area where the blood supply allows for this kind of infection. Thus, an abscess will most likely occur in one of these four areas. An abscess may also develop if bacteria enter through a small break in the skin near a wound or sore that does not heal properly. These types of infections are called "phlegmons." Phlegmons can also form when fluid from another part of the body enters the space between the muscle and bone and promotes bacterial growth. A phlegmon cannot spread throughout the body like a true abscess but rather stays put until it is treated by a physician.
Abscesses can be painful and cause problems with eating and sleeping. Eating too much sugar can lead to more frequent abscesses because it provides bacteria with extra fuel.
Advanced periodontitis with persistent infection eroding the gums and teeth characterizes Stage 4 periodontal disease. Bone loss is typically more than 50%. Bacteria from infected gums, teeth, and bone can enter the circulation and cause kidney, liver, and heart damage. Periodontal diseases are the leading cause of tooth loss in adults over 35 years old.
Stage 4 periodontal disease requires extensive dental work to save your teeth. Without treatment you will likely lose your teeth.
The good news is that most people living with stage 4 periodontal disease can still be treated and saved. With proper care and monitoring, your dentist can stop the progression of this disease while you continue to receive essential treatments that keep your mouth healthy so you don't develop other health problems due to missed appointments or not visiting the dentist regularly.
If you are being treated for stage 4 periodontal disease, your dentist may recommend additional oral hygiene practices to help prevent the spread of bacteria and the development of more severe cases of the disease. These include using interdental brushes or floss to remove food particles between your teeth where brushing alone isn't enough. Your dentist may also suggest using products with chlorhexidine (such as Chlor-X) to reduce the growth of bacteria inside the pockets of your teeth where they are most likely to re-enter your body through open wounds in your gums.