A paradoxical response (PR) in tuberculosis (TB) is described as a clinical or radiological deterioration of pre-existing tuberculous lesions or the emergence of new lesions in patients who originally recovered on anti-tuberculous medicine. The condition occurs in about 10% of all cases of TB, most commonly among older people with other health problems. It is usually not serious but can be associated with severe pain, neurological symptoms, or respiratory failure.
The term "paradoxical reaction" was first used by Duclos in 1853 to describe an acute worsening of symptoms after initial improvement following administration of cortisone for tuberculosis. This occurred because of the well-known effect of steroids on immune responses; however, these patients often died due to other causes rather than from increased activity of their tuberculosis. "'Recently, some authors have argued that the term "paradoxical reaction" does not accurately describe what is observed in clinical practice and has therefore proposed alternative terms such as "pseudotumour" or "steroid-induced disease"."'They suggest that the use of this term should be discouraged because it creates confusion in the literature.
In children, a PR may cause new bone lesions to develop. This is called "atypical pneumonia". If a patient with no previous symptoms develops fever and swelling of the lymph nodes during treatment then this is called "hyperimmune syndrome".
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by microorganisms that spread via the air from person to person. TB most commonly affects the lungs, but it can also affect other regions of the body such as the brain, kidneys, or spine. It can be fatal if not treated.
According to the World Health Organization, about 9 million people develop TB each year and approximately 2 million people die from the disease every year. The majority of these deaths are among people who have access to health care.
The best defense against TB is a complete series of vaccines that protect against both pulmonary and extrapulmonary forms of the disease. These vaccines are recommended for all children under the age of 5 years old, adults over the age of 15 years old, and immigrants from countries where TB is prevalent.
However, there are problems with compliance when using this method alone. Only 56% of children under the age of 5 years old who were vaccinated received all three doses of the vaccine required for full protection. If you don't complete your course of vaccinations, you leave yourself vulnerable to contracting the disease.
Currently, there are two drugs used to treat TB: isoniazid and rifampin. Isoniazid is prescribed for people of all ages while rifampin is only used to treat people between the ages of 13 and 64 years old.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious illness that mostly affects the lungs. Tuberculosis bacteria travel from person to person by small droplets sprayed into the air by coughs and sneezes. When someone touches a contaminated object or surface, they may then touch their mouth or nose and spread the infection.
People can be infected with TB bacteria without showing any signs or symptoms of the disease. The only way to know if you have the disease is through testing. If you are exposed to TB but not infected, your body will fight it off using antibiotics. This is called being "drug-sensitive." If you have active TB, you will need treatment even after you finish the drugs for the pneumonia.
The best defense against tuberculosis is a series of vaccines. These vaccines are available for people who are at high risk for getting the disease, such as health care workers and people living in or visiting countries where TB is common.
TB can occur in anyone, but people who are at higher risk of getting the disease include those who are sick more often, especially with respiratory problems; people who live with someone who has the disease; and immigrants from countries where the disease is common.
The most important factor in whether you get the disease is how much bacteria you are exposed to.
If a person with tuberculosis does not receive treatment, they may die. The only way to prevent TB is through vaccination and careful screening of people who are at risk.
The most important thing for someone with TB to know is that they do not cause the disease themselves. Only people who are infected with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria can develop the disease.
Those who are infected but do not show any signs of the disease may be carrying it without knowing it. This is called latent TB infection or LTBI. The chances of developing active TB if you have LTBI are very high, so it's important to get treated.
If you have lung cancer, you will probably have been told that you have pulmonary TB. This means that your cancer developed in areas of your lung where TB usually grows. The presence of TB in lung tissue does not change whether or not you will die from cancer. It is important to remember this when deciding on treatments. It is also important to remember that chemotherapy used to treat cancer may make you more susceptible to developing TB. Therefore, patients using chemotherapy should take special precautions to protect against TB.
These false-positive reactions can be caused by, but are not limited to, the following factors: TB inoculation using the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine in the past Nontuberculosis mycobacteria infection (mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis) or other fungi.
A false positive reaction can also be produced if the patient has been vaccinated with live virus vaccines (such as measles, mumps, and rubella [MMR] vaccine). In this case, a delayed-type hypersensitivity response could cause an elevated serum antibody level against mycobacterial proteins.
A false positive reaction can also be caused by cross-reactivity with other bacteria that produce antigens similar to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For example, some blood tests will give a positive result for tuberculosis even if the person does not have active disease because they have had a previous exposure to Mtb. This is called a "false-positive" result. Factors such as age, health, history of exposure, etc may all play a role in causing a false positive result.
A false positive reaction can also be caused by antibodies generated from previous infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The presence of these antibodies leads to false-positive results when testing for tuberculosis infection.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB). When a person is infected with M. tuberculosis, some of the bacteria may grow inside cells of the human body and cause disease. About 10% of people with latent tuberculosis infection will eventually develop active disease.
There are many different ways to treat TB infections including drugs taken by mouth, in a shot, or applied directly to the skin. The treatment must be taken for at least six months to make any difference in keeping the infection from coming back.
The main goal of treating TB is to keep the patient healthy while they receive anti-tuberculosis medications. This will prevent the spread of the infection and help prevent another case of TB. If you have TB, your health care provider may advise you to stay away from others who are not treated for it so they do not become sick too.
People who are infected with HIV virus can also get TB. There are now more than 1 million people infected with both HIV and TB worldwide. People with these dual infections need special attention because their immune systems are weakened already, making them more susceptible to developing full-blown TB.