The abdominal aponeurosis encircles the lengthy muscles in the stomach area, extending from the bottom of the chest to the top of the pubic area. These are known as the rectus abdominis muscles. Aponeuroses are thin tissues, such as the abdomen aponeurosis. They wrap around muscles to protect them.
The word "aponeurosis" comes from two Greek words: apo meaning "away" or "off" and neura meaning "thread" or "wire." Thus, an aponeurosis is a thread-like tissue that connects muscle groups off opposite sides of the body, such as the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments in the knee. Without these fibers, the muscles would be completely separate organs rather than one unit.
Examples of aponeuroses include the gastrocnemius muscle aponeurosis, which covers part of the calf muscle group. This fibrous membrane extends between the back side of the heel and the front side of the shank bone (tibia). It protects the soleus muscle on the underside of the foot from being injured when standing on hard surfaces. The fascia covering the muscles of the shoulder girdle is called the supraspinatus tendon aponeurosis because it wraps around part of the shoulder blade.
The rectus sheath is an aponeurosis (tendon sheath) that encloses the rectus abdominis and pyramidalis muscles. The tendons of the external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles form it. It extends from each side of the pelvis to the front of the body where it connects with the other side at the level of the umbilicus. This fibrous membrane provides a protective covering for the intestines and reproductive organs.
The rectus sheath forms two layers of muscle: one on the inside and one on the outside. These two layers are called the inner and outer rectus sheaths. The inner layer is continuous with the endomysium of the skeletal muscle. The outer layer attaches to the skin at several points. Between these attachment sites is a gap that contains loose connective tissue and blood vessels. The rectus sheath serves as a sac around which the abdominals can be moved.
As a term of anatomy, "aponeurosis" refers to a thickened section of tendon or ligament where it attaches to bone. In this case, the word "abdominal" is used as a modifier meaning "of the abdomen." Thus, the abdominal aponeurosis is the thickened section of tendon that covers the rectus abdominis muscle.
An aponeurosis (/, [email protected]@'roUsIs/; plural: aponeuroses) is a kind or variety of deep fascia that takes the shape of a sheet of pearly-white fibrous tissue that attaches sheet-like muscles that need a large area of attachment. The word comes from the Greek apo, meaning away from, and neuero, to bind together. Thus, an aponeurosis binds two or more muscles together.
The term "aponeurosis" was first used by Johannes Müller in 1858 to describe a layer of connective tissue that attaches muscles to bone. He called it "the sheath which surrounds each muscle." The term still is widely used today in medical textbooks to describe similar layers of tissue that attach organs to their surrounding structures. For example, the anterior abdominal aponeurosis connects the intestines to the abdominal wall. The posterior abdominal aponeurosis connects the rectus abdominis to the sacrum.
Apooneuroses can be divided into three categories based on their appearance under a microscope: tendons, membranes, and fascias.
Tendons are thick bundles of collagen fibers that contain many blood vessels and nerve endings. They provide a connection between the muscle and its attachment site on a bone. Tendons can be white or yellow with a grayish color if they are old.