Increased intraocular pressure, often known as glaucoma, can harm your optic nerve, which delivers pictures to your brain. Glaucoma, if left untreated, can cause irreversible vision loss or perhaps complete blindness within a few years. It is the second leading cause of blindness in the world.
The only cure for glaucoma is surgery to replace the destroyed optic nerve tissue. However, medical treatment is necessary before surgery is considered. Even though glaucoma cannot be cured, it can be controlled with medication and lifestyle changes. These include:
• Having your eyes checked regularly by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor). This will help detect early signs of glaucoma development.
• Maintaining good blood pressure and cholesterol levels. High blood pressure can lead to glaucoma development while high cholesterol levels may indicate that you are at risk for developing diabetes which is another major cause of blindness worldwide.
• Stopping smoking. Smoking increases your risk of developing glaucoma.
• Eating a healthy diet low in sugar and saturated fats and including more fruits and vegetables per day could help prevent further damage from occurring.
• Considering laser therapy or trabeculectomy if the medicine fails to stop the disease progression.
Pigment dispersion syndrome can cause chronic drain damage as well as higher eye pressure. Over time, high eye pressure can damage the optic nerve, resulting in pigmentary glaucoma. Glaucoma, if left untreated, can cause visual loss and finally blindness. Therefore, it is important to control eye pressure whenever possible to prevent this from happening.
Glaucoma is a collection of eye disorders that cause damage to the optic nerve, which is essential for proper vision. This injury is typically caused by an extremely high pressure in your eye. For those over the age of 60, glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness.
The three main types of glaucoma are open-angle, angle-closure, and congenital glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) is the most common type of glaucoma and it occurs when fluid builds up within the eyeball, causing pressure to increase above normal levels. This increased pressure damages the optic nerve, resulting in loss of visual function until surgery can reduce this pressure or new blood vessels grow into the optic disc, providing relief from some of the pain and blindness associated with OAG.
Angle-closure glaucoma occurs when the lens of the eye prevents fluid from draining out, which causes pressure to rise. In severe cases, this pressure may cause the iris to collapse upon the front of the eye, blocking the source of light and preventing any vision at all. This type of glaucoma requires emergency medical attention because if left untreated it can lead to permanent blindness.
Congenital glaucoma is present at birth and cannot be treated successfully with medication, so the eye will need to be surgically removed to prevent further damage.
Glaucoma is frequently, but not always, accompanied with increased intraocular pressure (intraocular pressure). In most cases, it is the increased eye pressure that causes damage to the eye's (optic) nerve. Glaucoma can develop in the presence of normal eye pressure in some circumstances. For example, it may occur when the flow of fluid through an artery supplying blood to the eye is blocked by plaque formation.
Damage to the optic nerve leads to loss of vision in this eye. As long as there is at least some remaining vision in the affected eye, someone suffering from glaucoma will be able to detect the change in their visual field by means of special tests. These tests measure the sensitivity of the retina to light and its ability to transmit information from the eye to the brain.
Who is at risk of developing glaucoma? People who are born with certain genetic disorders are likely to develop glaucoma during their lives. This is because glaucoma often has no apparent cause and occurs when the pressure inside the eye increases without any known reason. If one or both of your parents or siblings have been diagnosed with glaucoma, you should discuss with your doctor options for preventing this disease.
People who are black or Asian American are more likely to develop glaucoma than those who are white.
Congenital glaucoma causes a rise in intraocular pressure due to a birth abnormality in the development of the angle of the eye as a result of inadequate eye development. As a result of the aqueous humour being unable to drain normally, intraocular pressure rises, causing optic nerve injury. If left untreated, this can lead to blindness.
How are congenital glaucomas diagnosed? Physicians use an ultrasound to look at the size of the eyes and check for any signs of other problems such as heart defects. They may also test visual acuity (the ability to see) and color vision. After these tests have been completed, they will refer you to an ophthalmologist (eye doctor), who will conduct additional examinations under general anesthesia to determine the cause of your child's glaucoma.
What are the treatments for congenital glaucoma? Treatment depends on how severe your child's case of glaucoma is. In mild cases, physicians prescribe medications or implants that regulate eye pressure or create more drainage channels. In more serious cases, surgery must be performed to remove part of the eye or connect tissues inside the eye canal with other tissues around it to create another channel for fluid to flow through.
Does every child with congenital glaucoma need surgery? No, not necessarily.
Unrelieved abnormally high intraocular pressure causes visual impairment. Glaucoma is caused by two types of blockages. (1) The obstruction might arise in the porous tissue between the anterior chamber and the Schlemm canal, the canal itself, or the aqueous veins. This type of blockage is called a trabecular meshwork occlusion. It can be hard or soft, but it always needs to be removed to restore proper flow-through of the eye.
(2) A second type of blockade occurs within the fluid of the eye. This type of obstruction is usually caused by debris that has accumulated over time. This debris can include cellular waste products from around healthy eyes cells, protein fragments that can't be eliminated by regular washing, and even small particles of glass or plastic.
The debris blocks some of the fluid from flowing out of the eye. As more fluid builds up behind the blockage, this excess fluid pushes on the lens or cornea. This can lead to pain, vision problems, and eventually blindness. To prevent further damage, you need to remove the debris causing the blockage so that fluid can flow through the eye again.
Glaucoma remains undetected until it's too late because its symptoms are similar to those of other diseases that do not require treatment.