Agents that make you vomit They may act directly on the gastrointestinal system, causing emesis by local irritating effects, or indirectly via actions on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal region near the medulla. The most common agents are acetylcholine receptor antagonists such as atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscine. Other agents include alcohol, caffeine, chloroform, nicotine, and phenothiazines. Emetics can also be classified by the site of their action: centrally acting agents affect both central and peripheral neurons, while peripherally acting agents affect only peripheral neurons.
Central agents include morphine, cocaine, amphetamines, and barbiturates. These drugs inhibit the synthesis of neurotransmitters in the brain cells, thereby producing a cooling effect on the body. The eyes may become dry and irritable. The pupils may be reduced in size. The voice may become weak. The patient may appear drowsy.
Peripherally acting agents include cholinergic agents, such as acetylcholine agonists like pilocarpine and carbachol; anticholinergics like atropine and glycopyrrolate; and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) releasers like fenfluramine and dexfenflurane.
The phrase "vomiting" refers to the violent ejection of stomach contents through the mouth or, in rare cases, the nose, also known as emesis. Vomiting can be caused by certain drugs that make you feel sick or convulse. It may be a symptom of some other condition. There are many different reasons for vomiting.
Emesis is the term used to describe the expulsion of gastric contents through the mouth. Emesis can be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary emesis is usually done to rid the body of harmful substances such as medications or poisons. Involuntary emesis occurs when the patient cannot control the act of vomiting. This often happens after surgery where the patient's throat has been paralyzed with medication called neuromuscular blockers.
Emesis is needed to eliminate toxins from the body. If you are unable to vomit, then you must provide another way for your body to get rid of these toxins. A person who is unable to vomit should never eat again after drinking alcohol or taking medications that cause intoxication. The only time it is acceptable to not provide an opportunity for waste products to be eliminated from the body is if a patient has a stoma (opening) into the gastrointestinal tract where they can directly expel what they eat.
Foodborne infections (food poisoning) and dyspepsia are the most prevalent causes of vomiting in adults. Bacterial or viral illnesses, such as viral gastroenteritis, sometimes known as a "stomach bug." Certain medications can also cause nausea and/or vomiting. These include anti-depressants, certain antibiotics, and chemotherapy drugs.
Emesis can be caused by a variety of factors including food poisoning, viruses, bacteria, and chemicals. The most common causes of vomiting in adults are food poisoning and dyspepsia (indigestion). Food poisoning results from ingestion of any substance that is harmful to humans, whereas dyspepsia refers to any disorder of the stomach and intestines that causes symptoms such as pain, nausea, and vomiting. Many diseases and disorders can cause vomiting as a symptom. These include allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, neurological conditions such as brain tumors and epilepsy, pulmonary diseases such as pneumonia and tuberculosis, gastrointestinal diseases such as ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), alcohol use, and drug abuse.
Vomiting can be triggered by anything that makes you feel sick to your stomach. The possibility of causing harm if you attempt to treat someone who is vomiting should be taken into account when deciding how to respond.
1. making someone vomit 2. a substance that does this; examples include a strong salt solution, mustard water, powdered ipecac, and ipecac syrup. 3. something that causes vomiting; examples include a toxin or poison and illness. 4. Vomiting is the sudden expulsion of contents from the stomach. Emesis is the reflex action of the body in response to what it perceives as a threat to its integrity. The most common cause of vomiting is nausea and anxiety caused by eating something that disagrees with you. Other causes may be more serious, such as ingesting too much alcohol or taking drugs for which you have an allergy. Certain diseases can also trigger vomiting. For example, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the brain can cause severe vomiting. A viral infection can also cause other symptoms, such as fever and pain when swallowing.
5. Vomiting often occurs in association with diarrhea. Although both responses are intended to rid the body of toxins, vomiting is usually accompanied by an increase in stomach acid that can damage the lining of the stomach and intestine. People who vomit frequently are at risk of developing esophageal cancer. Those who eat a poor diet, fail to chew their food properly, or use tobacco products are likely to consume excessive amounts of acid.