In order to do a straightforward extraction, the dentist uses an elevator to release the tooth. The dentist next removes the tooth with forceps. A surgical extraction is a more complicated operation utilized when a tooth has broken off at the gum line or has not erupted in the mouth. In this case, the surgeon will make an incision at the side of the face near the ear and cut through connective tissue to expose the bone surrounding the tooth. Next, he/she will drill holes in the bone and thread a stringed instrument called an "osteotome" through them. The osteotome will be used to break up the bone so it can be removed. Once the bone is loose enough to be pulled out, it will be removed using a spoon-shaped tool called an "ouster". The hole where the root ball was before it was removed is then filled with a dental cement.
A simple extraction can be done under local anesthesia (numbing medication injected into the jaw). This method does not require cutting into the face but rather injecting around the tooth to numb it first. The dentist may also recommend that you see a pain reliever by your family doctor before having any work done on your teeth. Some medications such as warfarin (Coumadin), have been known to affect the blood clotting process and therefore increase the risk of bleeding during surgery.
The dentist will create a tiny incision in the gums to have greater access to the root and jaw bone during the extraction. The socket in the jaw bone that contains the tooth is then expanded by the dentist. Finally, forceps are utilized to extract the tooth from its socket.
If you have a tooth that is broken or infected, it should be removed by a dentist so that no further damage occurs. You may want to ask your dentist how he or she plans to remove your tooth so that you know what to expect during the process.
Sometimes, however, even though a tooth has been damaged or diseased, it can be saved. Your dentist can determine if the tooth can be repaired instead of extracted. If so, the tooth will be moved aside while other treatments are performed on the area above it. After these procedures the tooth will be placed back into its original position.
Once your dentist has decided that your tooth cannot be repaired, he or she will explain your options for replacing it. There are two main types of replacement teeth: natural and artificial.
Natural teeth are a person's own tissue cells that have grown together to form a tooth. They can be used when replacing one tooth or several teeth. Natural teeth usually provide better support than artificial teeth and look more like their original self. However, they can also be harder to attach to bone than prosthetics.
Extraction is simple. You will be given a local anesthetic, which will numb the region surrounding your tooth, allowing you to feel just pressure rather than pain during the treatment. The dentist will next use an elevator to loosen the tooth and forceps to extract it.
If your tooth is injured but not fractured, the dentist may be able to repair it before extracting it. This is called "preventive dentistry." If subsequent problems arise from the untreated tooth, it can be removed at that time.
Your dentist may offer alternative methods to remove teeth. These include using laser light or chemical agents to destroy tissue without removing the tooth. In addition, there are several medical procedures that can be used to induce heart disease, such as angioplasty, so that a tooth can be removed because of the risk of infection if the tooth has to be kept for medical reasons.
If necessary, replacement teeth can be implanted into the jaw in place of the extracted tooth. This process is called "tooth transplantation." Replacement teeth can be natural objects such as bones or other teeth or mechanical devices such as implants.
Replacement teeth must be healthy enough to withstand the stress of chewing food. Otherwise, the patient will experience pain when eating solid foods. Also, replacement teeth should be placed equidistant between the original tooth and the adjacent teeth or it will look odd.
A simple extraction is the removal of a visible baby tooth from the mouth. A simple extraction is performed by a dentist using a "elevator," which loosens the tooth, and then forceps. A local anesthetic is usually all that is required for these extractions. The patient may experience some discomfort during recovery, but this is normal.
The dentist will take care not to hurt any nearby nerves when removing teeth. If any nerves are damaged during the process they will not function properly, which could lead to pain, sensitivity, or numbness in the area near the injured nerve.
Teeth can also be removed if they cause harm to other parts of the body. For example, a dentist may remove a severely decayed tooth if it is causing pain or infection in the jawbone below. Such problems are more likely to occur with older teeth and those who suffer from diabetes or cancer treatments that damage the bone tissue.
Finally, teeth may be extracted if they are trapped between the bones of the face. In this case, surgery is required to free the tooth without injuring the surrounding tissue.
Extractions can be stressful for children as well as adults. Children may worry about being unable to eat anything solid for several days following an extraction. They may also feel limited in their ability to speak or smile because of the bandages placed over the face.
Two devices are used to extract teeth in basic tooth extractions: dental extraction forceps and the periosteal elevator. Forceps are useful in extracting small, relatively stable teeth located near the center of the mouth.
The periosteal elevator is used to remove teeth that cannot be extracted with forceps. This tool is useful when a tooth is too large or bone surrounding it is fractured. The dentist elevates the periosteum (the membrane covering the bone) and extracts the tooth.
Other instruments may be used in more complicated cases or by other physicians who are learning surgical techniques. These include osteotomes, which are tools used to break up and remove damaged bone before extracting teeth; drill-endorsed files, which are spiral devices used to grind down surface enamel on exposed root tips of teeth before removing them; and lasers, which vaporize tissue without touching any other part of the body.
In conclusion, dentists use many different instruments to perform their work. Some of these are specific to certain procedures while others can be reused for multiple cases.