Repetitive facial movements, gazing, strange leg bicycling, muscular tightness, or rhythmic jerking are all symptoms of newborn seizures. Because many of these movements occur in healthy babies, an EEG may be required to determine whether a seizure is to blame. A prenatal diagnosis of epilepsy is possible if two or more seizures occur before age one. These seizures should not go undetected even if they do not cause any visible changes to the brain.
A seizure that occurs while the fetus is still in the mother's womb is called antepartum (before delivery). Postpartum (after birth) seizures can occur immediately after childbirth or at any time during hospitalization for the baby. About one in four children will have at least one episode of a seizure by age 14. Seizures that happen before the fifth birthday are called infantile seizures.
Children and adults who have had multiple seizures is at increased risk for having another one. If you are pregnant and experience several seizures, your doctor may want to monitor you closer than normal. This is especially true if you have a previous child with epilepsy.
You should tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. He or she will help you decide what type of monitoring to do after giving birth and how to take care of you during your pregnancy.
It is important to find out what causes seizures in infants and children.
What do newborn seizures look like?
A: Brain damage from disease or injury, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), is the most prevalent cause of seizures in newborn newborns (5).
B: Certain medications can also trigger a seizure. The most common drugs associated with infantile spasms are topiramate and valproic acid. Lithium treatment for bipolar disorder has been reported to increase the risk of seizures in children, but this effect is not seen until after several months of use. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) may cause behavioral problems in children who take it long term. Epidemic proportions of epilepsy occur when there is an underlying neurological condition such as brain tumor or stroke. In these cases, the seizures are a result of the condition causing brain damage which can lead to increased susceptibility to seizures. About 10% of infants born very prematurely (before 32 weeks' gestation) will have evidence of brain damage at birth that could put them at risk for developing epilepsy. Very low birth weight babies are at increased risk for seizures due to complications during pregnancy or labor, trauma to the brain during delivery, lack of oxygen at birth, and/or infection following birth.
C: A small percentage of infants will have a genetic predisposition to develop seizures. These children are born with abnormal genes that cause their brains to be more susceptible to seizures.
During a febrile seizure, a kid will usually lose consciousness and tremble wildly with both arms and legs. Eye rolling, inflexible (stiff) limbs, or twitching on only one side or a section of the body, such as an arm or a leg, are less frequent symptoms. There may be vomiting after a febrile seizure.
Other symptoms include:
• A dull ache in the head when waking up after sleeping through a fever
• Changes in behavior or mood during or after a fever
• Sore throat, cough, runny nose, earache, stomach pain, or constipation/diarrhea during or after a fever
• A red blotchy rash that comes and goes within 24 hours of a fever
• Falling down or becoming stiff due to heat exhaustion or stroke
• Breathing problems due to lung infection, asthma, or bronchitis
• Eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia
• Memory problems such as forgetting things recently learned or events that have happened previously
• Confusion about where you are or what day it is
A youngster may have a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of seizure. Some seizures are easily recognized and have well-known symptoms such as shaking and loss of consciousness. Others are less noticeable and may have no visible symptoms at all. Any type of seizure can be fatal if it goes on long enough.
Children can have seizures for many different reasons. Some causes are obvious while others are not. A child could have a seizure if he or she has a head injury, is suffering from brain tumor, or has drunk too much alcohol. Other factors that may lead to a seizure include stress, illness, and certain drugs. Sometimes there is no clear reason for a seizure to occur.
It is important to know the difference between normal childhood behavior and signs of a serious medical condition. Behavioral problems such as aggression, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, and withdrawal behaviors are common in children. It is important to seek medical attention if you think your child may be having seizures. Parents should also take time out of their daily activities to notice any changes in their child's behavior. Seizures can be very dangerous if they go undiagnosed for long enough. This is why it is important to seek help from a neurologist if your child is experiencing any unusual behaviors or if they have a history of seizures or stroke in the family.