Rifamycins block bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and prevent mRNA transcription from starting, especially in mycobacteria. They have antibacterial properties. Rifampicin (rifampin) has a broad range of action and is used in conjunction with other medications to treat mycobacterial infections (M. tuberculosis, M. avium, M. kansasii, and M. leprae). It can also be used alone for treating infections caused by these organisms.
Rifampicin works by blocking the function of mycobacterial RNA polymerase. It does not affect eukaryotic RNA polymerases I or II, so there is no risk of harming human cells. This drug is effective against most strains of bacteria that cause lung disease and meningitis, except for acid-fast bacilli that grow in acidic conditions. It may take several months before all of the bacteria in your body are killed off by rifampicin treatment.
The main side effect of rifampicin is an increased likelihood of developing kidney problems. Patients who are allergic to rifampicin may experience hives, itching, rash, or trouble breathing when taking this drug. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use rifampicin because it can lead to birth defects. Pregnant women should also avoid exposure to sunlight while taking rifampicin because of the risk of causing a photosensitivity reaction.
Rifampin belongs to a family of drugs known as antimycobacterials. It works by destroying the microorganisms responsible for illness. Antibiotics such as rifampin will not treat colds, flu, or other viral illnesses. They can cause serious side effects if used incorrectly or taken regularly for too long.
The most common side effect of rifampin is skin color change. It can cause your skin to become yellow, orange, red, or white and may show up quickly on your hands, feet, lips, and nails or more slowly on your face. This color change is always a sign of danger and requires medical attention. Other side effects include irritability, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, weight loss, dark urine, and light-colored stools.
Rifampin can cause serious side effects including kidney damage, liver problems, blood disorders (such as pancytopenia) or allergic reactions. You should never take any medication without first talking with your doctor or pharmacist. It is important for you to keep taking your antibiotics despite any symptoms that may be caused by the drug.
If you experience any symptoms of skin color change or any other symptoms while taking rifampin, seek medical help immediately.
Its antibacterial action is achieved by bacterial RNA polymerase inhibition. Rifampin appears to regulate the host immune response as well, regulating processes such as lymphocyte migration, cytokine generation, antigen presentation, and phagocytosis (9, 14, 17, 21, 31). It has been shown to increase or decrease the activity of various components of the immune system.
It is important to note that although rifampin has immunosuppressive effects, it does not constitute a complete loss of immunity. It is only when used in combination with other antibiotics that this effect becomes significant.
There have been reports of rifampin causing or exacerbating various infections, including tuberculosis, salmonella infection, herpes simplex virus infection, viral pneumonia, and chronic fatigue syndrome (14, 18-20, 29). However, most cases of infectious disease can be treated using antibiotic therapy alone without requiring additional immunosuppression.
Patients taking rifampin for tuberculosis treatment should remain on anti-infective therapy even after their tuberculosis is controlled because bacteria that cause latent tuberculosis infection may become activated during treatment with rifampin. Patients who stop taking rifampin before mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is cleared could then develop active tuberculosis.
Rifampin is bactericidal and inhibits the activity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, limiting the commencement of RNA synthesis by interfering with the activity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase's b-subunit. Rifampin metabolites can cause urine, feces, saliva, and tears to have a reddish-orange hue. This coloration results from the fact that bacteria use these compounds as indicators of their presence. The antibiotics affect the bacteria but not human cells. Rifampin is used to treat infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.
The most often used medications for treating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection include macrolides (e.g., clarithromycin, azithromycin), ethambutol, and rifamycin (e.g., rifabutin, rifampin). The first-line medications include clarithromycin or azithromycin in combination with ethambutol and rifabutin. There is some evidence that levofloxacin may be an effective alternative treatment option.
Treatment of M. tuberculosis infections requires the use of multiple drugs because no single drug can kill all mycobacteria. The most common first-line medication combinations for treating tuberculosis include isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Other medications used alone or together include amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin, and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS).
At present time, there is no vaccine available to prevent MAC or TB infections. However, there are studies ongoing to develop vaccines against these bacteria.
Antibiotics are also used to control bacterial infections caused by other organisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Some antibiotics are broad-spectrum while others are more specific. This means that they will kill only certain types of bacteria without affecting others.