Pushing at both areas at the same time causes the vomer bone, which runs across the nasal passageways, to swing back and forth like a seesaw. This movement is what allows for the nose to be pushed up or down.
When you push on the top of the nose, it can be because you are trying to straighten it. When you do this, the front of the skull moves forward while the back stays still. The muscles that control the face attach to certain points on the skull and when these muscles are stretched they become stronger. So by pushing on the top of the nose to straighten it, you are actually making it harder to breathe through that side of the nose.
The bottom of the nose is controlled by the levator veli palatini muscle. When this muscle is activated, it raises the soft palate (the piece of tissue that lines the back of the throat), which in turn lifts the bottom of the nose. This is how people talk with a cold. The virus that causes the cough muscle to contract also affects the levator veli palatini muscle, so if you have a lot of sneezing or coughing in your life, it's likely that one of these muscles is not working properly.
The vomer is a tiny, thin, plow-shaped bone in the midline that occupies and separates the nasal cavity. It articulates with the maxillae and palatines inferiorly on the midline, the sphenoid superiorly by its wings, and the ethmoid anterosuperiorly via its wings. The vomer has two parts: the body and the rostrum.
The body of the vomer forms the floor of the nose and extends upward as far as the middle ear. It is hollow within and contains no blood vessels nor any true bone tissue. However, it does contain small muscles which attach to the nose and move it up and down. These muscles are called the levator veli palatini muscles because they lift up the palate (via the soft tissue) when they are active.
The rostrum of the vomer reaches forward from the body and ends in a sharp point. It is thick walled and contains many foramina, or holes, which transmit nerves and arteries into and out of the nose. The surface of the rostrum is covered with small bumps known as rugae. They increase the surface area of the vomer and thus enhance its ability to vibrate sound waves back and forth while they transverse the nose.
The vomer is important in determining the shape of the nose.
Tendons are strong, cord-like structures that link muscles to bones and allow muscles to pull on bones. When you wriggle your fingers, you can see the tendons on the back of your hand moving as they operate. Tendons connect muscles to bones, allowing you to exert force on objects without having to attach yourself directly to them.
When muscles contract, they pull on their attached bones. This tension is transmitted through tendons to other bones, causing them to move too. For example, when you lift your arm above your head, your triceps muscle contracts, pulling on its attachment point (the shoulder bone) and thus causing the bone to bend. The same thing happens at the elbow and the wrist. This is why lifting weights with free weights or weight machines builds strong muscles that can pull on bone. Weight training also teaches your body how to adjust to stress by forming new tissue instead of relying solely on tearing down existing muscle fibers. As you get older, however, this tissue replacement slows down so you need to work out more often to maintain the strength of your muscles.
Tendons are much softer than bone and serve as a springboard for muscles to pull on. As you stretch a tendon, it will eventually tear if you keep pulling on it. The same thing happens when you try to lift something heavier than your muscles can handle.
Skeletal muscles are only capable of pulling in one direction. As a result, they are always sold in pairs. When one muscle in a pair contracts, for example, to bend a joint, its counterpart contracts and pulls in the opposite way to straighten the joint out. This allows you to move objects around you with your body. Without this ability, you would be stuck at whatever position you ended up in when you started moving one part of your body.
Bones are also only strong in one direction: parallel to their axis. They can't pull apart nor can they push together. Because of this, they must be constantly remodeled by special cells called osteoblasts which build up bone mass, and old bone tissue is replaced with new because the blood can't get into very small cracks or pores in it. This process is called "bone remodeling" and it is how our bodies maintain healthy bone density.
Osteoclasts work similarly to leukocytes to destroy foreign organisms such as bacteria or viruses. However, instead of helping us fight off infection, these cells cause destruction of bone tissue if they're overactive. This can happen if there are too many of them or if someone has a genetic condition called Osteoporosis. In this case, the bones become more fragile than normal and may break under minimal stress.
The opposite of bone tissue is cartilage which is strong but flexible.
The mobility of the sphenoid and occiput has long been regarded as a main focus in cranial treatments. Sutherland described the following motions between the sphenoid and the occiput around or at the sphenobasilar junction, which were later detailed in works by Magoun and Upledger: Extension and flexion of the neck, rotation of the head on the axis of the sphenoid, upward and downward movement of the head relative to the trunk.
He further noted that injury to the sphenoid bone may result in deformity of the skull because it can no longer hold its normal relationship with the other bones of the cranium. This could be due to injury to or degeneration of the ligaments connecting it to the surrounding bones, or instability within the bone itself.
Injury to the sphenoid bone is common because it is highly susceptible to trauma. Patients typically report symptoms such as pain, swelling, and deformity of the nose or face. If not treated, these injuries may lead to neurological problems such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), blindness, or memory issues.
Sphenoids are bone fragments that can migrate through the body after severe head injuries. These fragments are usually found near the spine, in the chest or abdomen. They are rare but do occur.
A study published in 2004 looked at how often the sphenoid bone moves over time.