Intravenous fluids Fluid overload and edema can result from receiving too much IV fluid, especially if other health issues are present. For example, if you have heart failure or kidney disease, you may be at risk for developing fluid retention when given a large volume of liquid through an IV.
The primary cause of fluid overload is the excessive amount of water in the blood. This occurs when you receive more fluid than your body removes from itself through urine and sweat. The more fluid that enters your body, the more water must be removed by other means because there is no way to escape it through your lungs or skin. Without proper treatment, fluid overload can lead to heart failure, permanent damage to the organs, and death.
IV fluids can also cause swelling if you have any kind of blockage in your veins, such as inflammation or a tumor. This is called "vascular swelling" and it happens when fluid builds up around the obstruction instead of flowing through its normal path. Vascular swelling can lead to additional problems if not treated promptly; for example, if a vein wall ruptures due to pressure changes caused by fluid buildup, then internal bleeding may occur. Your doctor should check your veins regularly for signs of irritation or injury.
Fluid overflow, also known as volume overload (hypervolemia), is a medical disorder in which there is an excess of fluid in the blood. Excess fluid, mostly salt and water, accumulates in the body, causing weight gain. The following indications or symptoms will be present: Swelling in the legs and arms is noticeable (peripheral edema) Increased appetite but no change in diet habits Feeling of fullness after eating little Food tasting bland Without drinking more fluids you have lost more than 2% of your body weight in three months You are taking diuretics for any reason Other conditions that lead to fluid retention are also present.
Diuretics are drugs that increase urine production and/or decrease re-absorption of sodium in the kidney tubules. Common diuretics include hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, and spironolactone. Diuretics can be taken orally or injected into a vein (intravenously). They are often prescribed for people with high blood pressure, heart failure, renal disease (the filtering system of the kidney does not work properly), diabetes, or liver disease. The goal of treating these disorders is to reduce fluid accumulation and thereby reduce the risk of serious complications such as heart failure or kidney damage.
Excessive fluid intake increases the amount of fluid in the body. This extra fluid causes several problems. It causes weight gain which may lead to depression and anxiety. It can cause your blood pressure to rise if you have hypertension (high blood pressure).
Fluid control complications include delivering too much fluid too quickly, resulting in fluid overload. Alternatively, insufficient fluid may be administered, or it may be supplied too slowly. Overload can result in headaches, high blood pressure, anxiety, and difficulty breathing. It can also lead to more serious problems such as heart failure or kidney damage.
If you receive too much fluid, your body will try to eliminate the excess by re-absorbing some of the water into your bloodstream. The kidneys are very efficient at this process; therefore, any patient who has received a large amount of fluid may appear thirsty, even though they are not drinking anything. The only way to tell for sure if you have received an excessive amount of fluid is if your pulse increases while you're lying down. If so, you should consider reducing the amount of fluid you're receiving.
IV fluids that are delivered directly into a vein (intravenously) instead of through a stomach tube (enteral) are called "central venous lines" and are placed by doctors who specialize in cardiac care. These lines provide access to the circulatory system for delivery of medications, nutrition, and other treatments. Central venous lines also provide a safe way to give patients blood products if they are going to be returned to the blood pool (such as with transfusions).
The most common complication of central venous lines is infection.