The Chikungunya virus is spread to humans through mosquito bites. Mosquitoes become infected by feeding on a person who is already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitos can then transmit the illness to other people via bites. There is no evidence that Chikungunya spreads from person to person.
Chikungunya has re-emerged in recent years due to global travel and trade. The virus was first identified in 1953 in Africa but didn't start spreading outside of Africa until 2005. Since then, outbreaks have been reported in India, Asia, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and Africa.
In 2013, there were reports of an increase in cases of chikungunya in Italy, France, and Switzerland. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) estimated that there were more than 1 million cases of chikungunya worldwide that year. The number of cases reported by Europe was higher than expected considering that these countries usually experience fewer than 10,000 cases per year.
It may be possible for the virus to spread between people during certain high-risk activities. These include sexual contact, touching doorknobs, objects with viral residue, and injecting drugs with contaminated needles. However, the ECDC says that there is no evidence that chikungunya is able to spread this way.
The virus, like other mosquito-borne illnesses, can only be spread by blood-to-blood contact, such as a mosquito bite or transfusion with contaminated blood. Touching or caring for an infected patient poses little danger of catching chikungunya. Patients with chikungunya may have symptoms for up to 7 days after they first become sick.
Chikungunya is not spread through casual contact. It cannot be passed from person to person on objects such as towels or eating utensils, or via sexual activity. Personal hygiene plays a major role in preventing transmission of the disease: individuals should wash their hands frequently and thoroughly after touching door knobs, toilets, or any other surface potentially containing the virus.
People who have never been to Africa or Asia but have had contact with the blood or urine of an infected person might develop symptoms similar to those of chikungunya. This is called "seropositive" status. A person's serostatus becomes positive if there was recent exposure to the virus and negative if not.
In addition, people who have recently received a blood transfusion or organ transplant might also develop symptoms similar to chikungunya later after the transplant surgery. This is called "transplant recipient syndrome" or "post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)".
The Chikungunya virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Fever and joint discomfort are the most typical signs of infection. Headaches, muscular soreness, joint swelling, and a rash are some of the other symptoms. Outbreaks have occurred in Africa, Asia, Europe, as well as the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Travelers to affected areas are at risk for contracting the virus.
In America, most people contract chikungunya while traveling. The virus is found in Africa, Asia, Europe, as well as the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Infected travelers can pass on the virus when they return home. Since there are no treatments or vaccines available for chikungunya, prevention is best handled by avoiding infected areas and reducing your chances of being bitten by choosing insect-resistant clothing and using insect repellent when outdoors.
While the illness is primarily seen in Africa and Asia, outbreaks in Europe and the Americas have been documented since the 2000s. More than a million suspected cases were reported in 2014.
|Causes||Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) spread by mosquitoes|
|Diagnostic method||Blood test for viral RNA or antibodies|
Chikungunya, an alpha virus of the Togaviridae family, is transmitted to humans by the bite of an Aedes aegypti mosquito and causes fever, headache, rash, and severe arthralgia. Although the Chikungunya virus is not neurotropic, incidences of meningoencephalitis have been observed during epidemics. Neurological complications are more common in children than in adults; the most frequent manifestation is a nonprogressive encephalitis that may lead to long-term disability.
Gram-negative bacilli include both gram-positive and negative organisms. While gram positive bacteria such as staphylococci can cause infection, most often it is gram-negative bacteria that cause disease. Examples of gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter spp. , Serratia marcescens, and Haemophilus influenzae.
The virulence factors responsible for bacterial pathogenesis include enzymes, toxins, and other proteins capable of killing host cells or inhibiting their function. Some bacteria produce enzymes that degrade tissue components, allowing the bacteria to spread through the body. Other enzymes can break down drugs so they cannot kill the bacteria or inhibit their growth. Finally, some bacteria produce toxins that cause disease by themselves or by triggering immune responses that result in inflammation.
Bacteria infect humans with antibiotics frequently used to treat them.
Chikungunya is almost never lethal. Symptoms are usually self-limiting and persist for two to three days. The virus persists in the human body for 5-7 days, and mosquitoes that feed on an infected person during this time can get infected as well. This is why people who have chikungunya cannot spread the disease through their saliva or urine.
Complications of chikungunya may include severe joint pain, fever, headache, muscle pain, rash, sensitivity to light, and vision problems. Rarely, infection with the chikungunya virus can lead to encephalitis (brain inflammation), which can be fatal. There is no cure for chikungunya; however, there are medications available to help relieve symptoms.
Chikungunya is found in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, South America, and the Caribbean. It is not known how the virus arrived in the New World, but it was probably brought over by travelers from Africa where the disease is common.
In 2005, there was a large outbreak of chikungunya in Italy. More than 7,000 cases were reported during this time, and the epidemic was linked to immigration and tourism from countries where the disease is prevalent.
Italy has one of the largest chikungunya populations in Europe.
Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus infection from the Togaviridae family. CHIKV is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. The virus was first identified in 1953 during an epidemic in Tanzania. Since then, sporadic cases have been reported throughout Africa, Asia, and Oceania.
Chikungunya is characterized by high fever, headache, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, red eyes, and swollen glands. The illness usually lasts two to seven days, and it can lead to long-term arthritis. People who are over 50 years old are at greater risk for serious complications from CHIKV infection. Those with existing health problems are at higher risk for severe disease.
In addition to being a human pathogen, CHIKV has also been found in African monkeys, which makes it likely that the virus will evolve into a form that is able to spread among animals.