Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious illness that affects cattle. It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), which may also infect and cause disease in people, deer, goats, pigs, cats, dogs, and badgers. It is mostly a respiratory illness in cattle, but clinical indications are uncommon. Infected cows are a potential source of infection for humans through contact with raw milk products.
Calves are usually born immune to TB because their immune systems are developing properly. However many countries require that dairy farmers vaccinate their cattle against TB because the disease can spread within and between herds. The vaccine is safe and effective for up to three years; after that time it needs to be re-administered.
There are two types of BT vaccines: live and subunit. Live vaccines use an attenuated strain of the bacterium that has been modified so that it cannot cause disease. These strains are grown in culture and processed to remove any remaining viability indicators. They must be administered by injection into both intramuscularly and intraperitoneally. Subunit vaccines consist of purified proteins from the mycobacteria that induce an immune response without causing disease themselves. They are given as injections into intramuscular tissue alone.
The main advantage of live vaccines is that they generate a more robust immune response than subunit vaccines. This means that they provide longer protection against TB infection and disease development.
The bacterium Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis (bTB). It's termed "bovine" (which means "cattle") because it mostly affects cows, although it may afflict many animals, including badgers, rats, foxes, deer, and people. Badgers are particularly at risk from bTB because they often live in close proximity to cattle and share their habitats without being affected by livestock fencing or vaccination programs.
Bacteria spread to other animals through contact with infected animals or their products. Cattle can get bTB from another animal if they eat contaminated food or drink water that has been polluted with TB-infected urine or sputum. A badger can also get bTB if it eats meat or dairy products that have been contaminated with bacteria from a sick animal. Although badgers do not show any symptoms of the disease, they still can pass on bTB by spreading it between themselves.
According to research published in 2004, nearly one in five badgers sampled in Britain were found to be infected with M. Bovis. These findings indicate that while badgers may not be a major source of infection for cattle, they could be playing an important role in spreading the disease throughout herds. More research is needed to better understand how badgers are able to transmit bTB and what steps should be taken to prevent this from happening.
Human danger Bovine tuberculosis can be transmitted to humans by unpasteurized milk or dairy products from an infected cow, buffalo, goat, or sheep. Breathing in microorganisms expelled by sick animals Inhaling microorganisms produced from sick animals' corpses or excretions (such as faeces) may cause human beings to become ill with tuberculosis.
The most common way that people get sick with tuberculosis is by breathing in tiny particles containing the bacteria that cause the disease. This happens when someone with infectious tuberculosis coughs or sneezes. The particles are then spread into the air where they can land in a nose or mouth of someone who isn't protected by adequate health measures. People can also get infected through close contact with animals that have tuberculosis. For example, someone could get sick if they handle the animals without wearing protective clothing or equipment such as gloves.
Humans don't always know they have tuberculosis When a person has active tuberculosis, his or her immune system is strong enough to fight off the infection but not strong enough to defeat it. So even though the person appears to be healthy, there may be some cells within their body that are still fighting the infection. These hidden cells create the need for medications over time since the infection will not go away on its own. Active tuberculosis does not mean that a person is definitely going to get sick, but rather that they have the potential to do so.
Tuberculosis in Bovines: Control and Prevention The forced slaughter of reactors, travel limitations for affected herds, and slaughterhouse surveillance all help to facilitate systematic and routine testing. BTB is a reportable disease, and any suspected cases should be reported to the appropriate authorities.
The most effective method of control is through the elimination of exposure to infection by preventing cattle from becoming infected in the first place. This can only be done by thoroughly cleaning all equipment used on healthy animals to prevent contamination from outbreak animals, especially lungs that may be heavily contaminated with bacteria. Cattle should also not be exposed to infected tissue or fluids such as when feeding on pastures where there are tuberculous lesions on other cows. Finally, cattle should not be exposed to airborne particles released during slaughtering.
Preventive measures include careful management of animal shelters and feedlots to reduce the risk of infection for uninfected animals that come into contact with others that are infected; this is particularly important for dogs and cats that may be exposed through recreation outside of their own homes. Vaccination is another tool that can be used to protect susceptible populations such as young calves, adult females that remain in close proximity to other female members of the herd, and livestock workers. There are two types of vaccines available for prevention of TB: subcutaneous vaccines and aerosol vaccines. Subcutaneous vaccines require multiple injections over several weeks to provide protection against mycobacteria.
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It spreads when someone with active tuberculosis in their lungs coughs or sneezes and someone else inhales the ejected droplets, which contain tuberculosis germs. The people most at risk of getting tuberculosis are those who work with animals or animal products, such as farmers, veterinarians, zoo staff members, or people who work in meat processing plants. Other groups that may be at increased risk include people who live or have lived in rural areas, immigrants from countries where TB is common, and drug users.
TB can spread even if a person doesn't show any signs of illness. Active tuberculosis causes problems for the immune system by producing substances that destroy cells that fight infection and malignancy. This allows the bacteria to spread throughout the body.
The only way to stop the spread of TB is through prevention. This includes not being around others who are sick and not sharing drugs or alcohol containers with anyone who might be using heroin or other drugs.
If you are already infected with TB, you can reduce your chances of spreading it by avoiding people who are poorly housed, unemployed, or coming from countries where TB is common.
Finally, if you are a health care worker and suspect that you may have been exposed to TB, follow guidelines recommended by your health department.