A diuretic's function is to enhance urine output by the kidneys. Diuretics, as a result, increase urine frequency and may induce urinary urgency and incontinence by overburdening the patient's bladder capacity. Using a diuretic for long-term management of high blood pressure can also lead to impaired kidney function and dehydration. However these effects are rare if the diuretic is used properly and monitored regularly by a physician.
Diuretics come in several forms including tablets, capsules, liquids, and injections. They work by reducing fluid retention in the body which allows the kidneys to excrete more water and salt through the urine. Thiazides are probably the most common type of diuretic used to treat hypertension. They work by preventing water and salt from being absorbed by the kidneys into the bloodstream while allowing the muscles of the heart to remain relaxed. This reduces the workload of the heart while giving its owner a chance to relax with no fear of losing control of his or her blood pressure.
Diuretics can be dangerous if not used properly. Too much of a good thing can be just as harmful as too little. If you are taking any other medications, or have any medical conditions, then only take a diuretic if instructed by your doctor. Some people who take diuretics develop low blood pressure, which causes dizziness and faintness.
They are not performance-enhancing medicines in and of themselves, but are used to remove residues of other substances. Diuretics enhance urine output, and some athletes take them to cleanse away steroid residue. Others claim that the reduced weight gives them an advantage on demanding courses. However, due to the nature of these drugs they can have negative side effects such as dehydration, impaired cognitive function, etc. Athletes who use them should be very careful not to drink too much during exercise or risk suffering from diuresis (fainting due to excessive loss of water).
Diuretics can be divided into two main groups: sulfonamide derivatives and benzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives. Both types work by reducing fluid retention in the body. Fluid retention is either a benefit for sportspeople, because it leads to lower body weights which usually means better performance, or a hindrance because it can cause problems with physical activity.
Diuretics are used to treat a variety of medical disorders, including heart failure, hypertension, liver disease, and some forms of renal disease. Diuretics make you pee more often and reduce your blood sodium level. Therefore, they are also called "water pills." The three main types of diuretics are thiazide, loop, and potassium sparing.
Thiazides work by increasing urine production and reducing reabsorption of water and salt in the kidney. This reduces fluid accumulation in various parts of the body, such as the brain and lungs. It can also help control high blood pressure. Thiazides may be taken alone or with other medications to control diabetes or prevent kidney stones. They are used most often for treating hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (excessive fluid buildup in the body).
Loop diuretics work by interfering with how well the kidneys remove water from the body. This drug type is used to treat congestive heart failure when other treatments have failed or are not appropriate. Loop diuretics do not allow the body to produce its own fluids so they must be given intravenously or through a tube into a large vein. A dose of this medication will cause severe dehydration over time.
Diuretics are primarily used in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to treat edema, decrease blood pressure, and lower serum K+ levels in individuals with hyperkalemia (a secondary feature of their action). Diuretics are also used for acute management of high blood potassium levels or fluid overload. The most common diuretic used in CKD patients is spironolactone; other commonly used diuretics include amiloride, chlorthalidone, indapamide, metolazone, and triamterene.
Since diuretics reduce urine output, they should not be taken by anyone with inadequate renal function or who are already taking medications that require large amounts of urine for elimination (e.g., NSAIDs, acetaminophen, cyclosporine). In addition, since diuretics can lead to electrolyte imbalance (especially potassium), it is important that patients suffering from heart failure or those at risk for this condition take supplements such as potassium. Finally, since diuretics can cause a patient to lose weight even when eating a healthy diet, it is important that those who need them take them appropriately so as not to jeopardize their nutritional status.
If you are taking any other drugs, check with your doctor before adding any more supplements to your regimen. Some medications may interfere with the effectiveness of certain vitamins or minerals.
High blood pressure is the most frequent ailment treated with diuretics. The medications work by decreasing the quantity of fluid in your blood vessels, which helps to lower your blood pressure. These drugs include:
Thiazide diuretics - this group of medications includes hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), ethiazide (ETH), and benzthiazide (BEN). They work by reducing sodium reabsorption at several sites in the kidney, resulting in more water being flushed out of your body and the production of urine. The amount of urine produced depends on the dose of the medication; generally, patients taking thiazides require less food to stay hydrated than those who do not take these medications.
Kappa-opioid receptor agonists - this group of medications includes loperamide (IMMODIUM). They work by slowing the flow of water into and out of cells, which leads to increased excretion of sodium and chloride through your kidneys. This causes you to lose more water and salt through your urine.
Alpha-adrenergic blockers - this group of medications includes doxazosin (DOXAZASIN), prazosin (PRASSOL), and terazosin (TERMINOX).
Reducers of preload These aid in lowering the pressure caused by fluid entering your heart and lungs. Diuretics also aid in lowering blood pressure by causing you to pee, which removes fluid. The urine flow will also flush out any drug particles that might be circulating through your body. Diuretics can be administered orally or injected intramusselty. The most common oral diuretic is hydrochlorothiazide (Zetia, Zoloft). Lasix is another name for furosemide, which is an oral diuretic used to treat high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and edema (excessive accumulation of fluid in the body). In addition to reducing preload, diuretics can also reduce afterload by limiting the amount of salt and water in the body. This reduces the workload on the heart during each contraction.
Reducer of afterload After a person has been deprived of fluid for several hours, even if the deprivation is only temporary, the plasma volume becomes reduced. This means there is less fluid outside the cells to fill with salt and water, so more fluid is drawn into the cells to make up for the loss. This extra fluid inside the cells increases their weight and pressure, putting stress on the heart muscle. As long as this stress is only internal, such as from increased blood volume, the heart muscle can handle it.